Cannabis -vs- IBD

​​​​​​cannabis data.org

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22095142:   Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients suffer from significant morbidity and diminished life quality. The plant cannabis is beneficial in various gastrointestinal diseases, stimulating appetite and causing weight gain. Our aims were to assess whether treatment with inhaled cannabis improves quality of life, disease activity and promotes weight gain in these patients.


Thirteen patients were included. After 3 months' treatment, patients reported improvement in general health perception (p = 0.001), social functioning (p = 0.0002), ability to work (p = 0.0005), physical pain (p = 0.004) and depression (p = 0.007). A schematic scale of health perception showed an improved score from 4.1 ± 1.43 to 7 ± 1.42 (p = 0.0002). Patients had a weight gain of 4.3 ± 2 kg during treatment (range 2-8; p = 0.0002) and an average rise in BMI of 1.4 ± 0.61 (range 0.8-2.7; p = 0.002). The average Harvey-Bradshaw index was reduced from 11.36 ± 3.17 to 5.72 ± 2.68 (p = 0.001).


Three months' treatment with inhaled cannabis improves quality of life measurements, disease activity index, and causes weight gain and rise in BMI in long-standing IBD patients.


https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21795981Experimental evidence suggests the endogenous cannabinoid system may protect against colonic inflammation, leading to the possibility that activation of this system may have a therapeutic role in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Medicinal use of cannabis for chronic pain and other symptoms has been reported in a number of medical conditions. We aimed to evaluate cannabis use in patients with IBD.

A comparable proportion of UC and CD patients reported lifetime [48/95 (51%) UC vs. 91/189 (48%) CD] or current [11/95 (12%) UC vs. 30/189 (16%) CD] cannabis use. Of lifetime users, 14/43 (33%) UC and 40/80 (50%) CD patients have used it to relieve IBD-related symptoms, including abdominal pain, diarrhoea and reduced appetite. Patients were more likely to use cannabis for symptom relief if they had a history of abdominal surgery [29/48 (60%) vs. 24/74 (32%); P=0.002], chronic analgesic use [29/41 (71%) vs. 25/81 (31%); P<0.001], complimentary alternative medicine use [36/66 (55%) vs. 18/56 (32%); P=0.01] and a lower short inflammatory bowel disease questionnaire score (45.1±2.1 vs. 50.3±1.5; P=0.03). Patients who had used cannabis [60/139 (43%)] were more likely than nonusers [13/133 (10%); P<0.001 vs. users] to express an interest in participating in a hypothetical therapeutic trial of cannabis for IBD.


Cannabis use is common amongst patients with IBD for symptom relief, particularly amongst those with a history of abdominal surgery, chronic abdominal pain and/or a low quality of life index. The therapeutic benefits of cannabinoid derivatives in IBD may warrant further exploration.


https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22220436 According to the literature, quality of life has been shown to be reduced in females compared with males with Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD). Psychosocial factors are also playing an important role in IBD, especially emotional lability. The aims of study was to investigate the sex differences in general and specific health-related quality of life (HRQoL), anxiety and depression in IBD patients. Hundred and twelve outpatients of the Gastroenterology Division, Clinical Hospital Centre Rijeka, were enrolled in our study and divided in two groups: 50 females (31 with ulcerative colitis, UC and 19 with Crohn disease, CD) and 62 males (30 with UC and 32 with CD), age range 19 to 74 (M = 41.46; SD = 13.06). Most patients have been in long clinical remission or with mild disease according to Clinical Disease Activity Index (CDAI) score for CD and Clinical Activity Index (CAI) score for UC. There were significant differences in physical (F = 13.96, p < .0001) and mental (F = 9.44, p < .001) component of the general HRQoL, emotional domain ((F = 9.26, p < .001) and bowel symptoms (F = 7.04, p < .001) of the Inflammatory Bowel Disease Quality of life (IBDQoL), as well as, in anxiety (F = 7.03, p < .001) and depression (F = 12.09, p < .0001) between men and women with IBD. Women have expressed significantly lower level of the general HRQoL and more emotional disturbances connected with their disease as well as more frequent bowel symptoms compared with men. Effect sizes of those differences were large. Results of this study confirm that women with IBD are more prone to the negative impact of the disease on their HRQoL than men. Women with higher level of depression and anxiety experienced more emotional disturbances, bowel and systemic symptoms and lower general HRQoL. These results should deserve more considerations in the clinical treatment of IBD patients.


https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21795981:   Experimental evidence suggests the endogenous cannabinoid system may protect against colonic inflammation, leading to the possibility that activation of this system may have a therapeutic role in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Medicinal use of cannabis for chronic pain and other symptoms has been reported in a number of medical conditions. We aimed to evaluate cannabis use in patients with IBD.

A comparable proportion of UC and CD patients reported lifetime [48/95 (51%) UC vs. 91/189 (48%) CD] or current [11/95 (12%) UC vs. 30/189 (16%) CD] cannabis use. Of lifetime users, 14/43 (33%) UC and 40/80 (50%) CD patients have used it to relieve IBD-related symptoms, including abdominal pain, diarrhea and reduced appetite. Patients were more likely to use cannabis for symptom relief if they had a history of abdominal surgery [29/48 (60%) vs. 24/74 (32%); P=0.002], chronic analgesic use [29/41 (71%) vs. 25/81 (31%); P<0.001], complimentary alternative medicine use [36/66 (55%) vs. 18/56 (32%); P=0.01] and a lower short inflammatory bowel disease questionnaire score (45.1±2.1 vs. 50.3±1.5; P=0.03). Patients who had used cannabis [60/139 (43%)] were more likely than nonusers [13/133 (10%); P<0.001 vs. users] to express an interest in participating in a hypothetical therapeutic trial of cannabis for IBD.

Cannabis use is common amongst patients with IBD for symptom relief, particularly amongst those with a history of abdominal surgery, chronic abdominal pain and/or a low quality of life index. The therapeutic benefits of cannabinoid derivatives in IBD may warrant further exploration.


https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28035196:   The marijuana plant Cannabis sativa and its derivatives, cannabinoids, have grown increasingly popular as a potential therapy for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Studies have shown that modulation of the endocannabinoid system, which regulates various functions in the body and has been shown to play a key role in the pathogenesis of IBD, has a therapeutic effect in mouse colitis. Epidemiologic data and human therapy studies reveal a possible role for cannabinoids in the symptomatic treatment of IBD, although it has yet to be determined in human populations whether cannabinoids have therapeutic anti-inflammatory effects in IBD or are simply masking its many debilitating symptoms. Large, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trials using serial inflammatory markers, biopsy findings, and endoscopic disease severity to demonstrate objective improvement in IBD are necessary before cannabis can be empirically accepted and recommended as an IBD treatment option. Questions concerning its safety profile and adverse effects prompt the need for further research, particularly in regard to dosing and route of administration to maximize benefits and limit potential harms. Cannabis use should be reserved for symptomatic control in patients with severe IBD refractory to the currently available standard-of-care and complementary and alternative medicines.


https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28276820:   Fifty years after the discovery of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) as the psychoactive component of Cannabis, we are assessing the possibility of translating this herb into clinical treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs). Here, a discussion on the problems associated with a potential treatment is given. From first surveys and small clinical studies in patients with IBD we have learned that Cannabis is frequently used to alleviate diarrhea, abdominal pain, and loss of appetite. Single ingredients from Cannabis, such as THC and cannabidiol, commonly described as cannabinoids, are responsible for these effects. Synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonists are also termed cannabinoids, some of which, like dronabinol and nabilone, are already available with a narcotic prescription. Areas covered: Recent data on the effects of Cannabis/cannabinoids in experimental models of IBD and in clinical trials with IBD patients have been reviewed using a PubMed database search. A short background on the endocannabinoid system is also provided. Expert commentary: Cannabinoids could be helpful for certain symptoms of IBD, but there is still a lack of clinical studies to prove efficacy, tolerability and safety of cannabinoid-based medication for IBD patients, leaving medical professionals without evidence and guidelines.