​​​​​​cannabis data.org

Cannabis -vs- ADHD



https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28576350 Adults with ADHD describe self-medicating with cannabis, with some reporting a preference for cannabis over ADHD medications. A small number of psychiatrists in the US prescribe cannabis medication for ADHD, despite there being no evidence from randomised controlled studies. The EMA-C trial (Experimental Medicine in ADHD-Cannabinoids) was a pilot randomised placebo-controlled experimental study of a cannabinoid medication, Sativex Oromucosal Spray, in 30 adults with ADHD. The primary outcome was cognitive performance and activity level using the QbTest. Secondary outcomes included ADHD and emotional lability (EL) symptoms. From 17.07.14 to 18.06.15, 30 participants were randomly assigned to the active (n=15) or placebo (n=15) group. For the primary outcome, no significant difference was found in the ITT analysis although the overall pattern of scores was such that the active group usually had scores that were better than the placebo group (Est=-0.17, 95%CI-0.40 to 0.07, p=0.16, n=15/11 active/placebo). For secondary outcomes Sativex was associated with a nominally significant improvement in hyperactivity/impulsivity (p=0.03) and a cognitive measure of inhibition (p=0.05), and a trend towards improvement for inattention (p=0.10) and EL (p=0.11). Per-protocol effects were higher. Results did not meet significance following adjustment for multiple testing. One serious (muscular seizures/spasms) and three mild adverse events occurred in the active group and one serious (cardiovascular problems) adverse event in the placebo group. Adults with ADHD may represent a subgroup of individuals who experience a reduction of symptoms and no cognitive impairments following cannabinoid use. While not definitive, this study provides preliminary evidence supporting the self-medication theory of cannabis use in ADHD and the need for further studies of the endocannabinoid system in ADHD.


https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24093525The current study examined the association between subtypes of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and cannabis use within a sample of 2811 current users. Data were collected in 2012 from a national U.S. survey of cannabis users. A series of logistic regression equations and chi-squares were assessed for proportional differences between users. When asked about the ADHD symptoms they have experienced when not using cannabis, a higher proportion of daily users met symptom criteria for an ADHD diagnoses of the subtypes that include hyperactive-impulsive symptoms than the inattentive subtype. For nondaily users, the proportions of users meeting symptom criteria did not differ by subtype. These results have implications for identifying which individuals with ADHD might be more likely to self-medicate using cannabis. Furthermore, these findings indirectly support research linking relevant cannabinoid receptors to regulatory control.


https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17453603 Studies report increased rates of cigarette and substance use in youths with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), though the mechanism of risk remains unclear. The present study tests the hypothesis that ADHD individuals "self-medicate" with cigarettes and substances of abuse. As part of five- and ten-year case-control longitudinal family studies of ADHD, responses to the Drug Use Screening Inventory (DUSI) were examined for evidence of self-medication. DUSI data from 90 ADHD probands and 96 control probands were obtained. Thirty-six percent of subjects reported self-medication, 25% used to get high, and 39% had unknown motivation. No significant differences were found between ADHD and controls in motivation. ADHD symptoms did not differ between self-medicators and subjects using to get high. DUSI problem scores were higher in ADHD (versus controls), those using to get high (versus self-medicators), and subjects using alcohol (versus other substances). More than one-third of adolescents and young adults endorsed using cigarettes and substances for self medication. Studies clarifying the role of self-medication in substance use disorders are necessary.


https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24093525: The current study examined the association between subtypes of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and cannabis use within a sample of 2811 current users. Data were collected in 2012 from a national U.S. survey of cannabis users. A series of logistic regression equations and chi-squares were assessed for proportional differences between users. When asked about the ADHD symptoms they have experienced when not using cannabis, a higher proportion of daily users met symptom criteria for an ADHD diagnoses of the subtypes that include hyperactive-impulsive symptoms than the inattentive subtype. For nondaily users, the proportions of users meeting symptom criteria did not differ by subtype. These results have implications for identifying which individuals with ADHD might be more likely to self-medicate using cannabis. Furthermore, these findings indirectly support research linking relevant cannabinoid receptors to regulatory control.